PARP inhibitors (PARPi) cause synthetic lethality in BRCA-deficient tumors. Whether specific vulnerabilities to PARPi exist beyond BRCA mutations and related defects in homology-directed repair (HDR) is not well understood. Here, we identify the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIP12 as negative regulator of PARPi sensitivity. We show that TRIP12 controls steady-state PARP1 levels and limits PARPi-induced cytotoxic PARP1 trapping. Upon loss of TRIP12, elevated PARPi-induced PARP1 trapping causes increased DNA replication stress, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and cell death. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that TRIP12 binds PARP1 via a central PAR-binding WWE domain and, using its carboxy-terminal HECT domain, catalyzes polyubiquitylation of PARP1, triggering proteasomal degradation and preventing supra-physiological PARP1 accumulation. Further, in cohorts of breast and ovarian cancer patients, PARP1 abundance is negatively correlated with TRIP12 expression. We thus propose TRIP12 as regulator of PARP1 stability and PARPi-induced PARP trapping, with potential implications for PARPi sensitivity and resistance.